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Token Ring Lan Pdf Free
In this, the virtual ring is created with stations and therefore tokens are subsequently passed from a station during a sequence with this virtual ring. Every station or node in the token bus network knows the address of its predecessor station and its successor station. A node (station) can transmit the data if and only if it has a token. Its working rule is analogous to the token ring network.
Ethernet is by far the most popular wired LAN technology. It defines wiring, signaling, connectors, frame formats, protocol rules, etc. Most modern LANs also support the wireless LAN (WLAN) technology, defined by the IEEE 802.11 standards. WLANs use radio waves instead of wires or cables for links between devices.
Ethernet crossover cable of category 5e is a cable that has four twisted pairs of wires. The cable has RJ-45 connectors on both ends, with T568A wiring on one end of the cable and T568B on the other end. The crossover cable is used to connect network devices of the same type, such as two Ethernet cards of different computers. Modern network cards can work with a patch cable without a crossover cable when connecting two computers using the point-to-point network topology. The connection is possible thanks to Ethernet Auto MDI-X support (medium dependent interface crossover).
IEEE 802.4 is the Token Bus standard that is used to create a logical token ring in networks built using the bus topology. A token is passed from one station to another in a defined sequence that represents the logical ring in the clockwise or counter-clockwise direction. On the following image, for Station 3, the neighbors are Station 1 and Station 5, and one of them is selected to transmit data depending on the direction. Only the token holder (the station having the token) can transmit frames in the network. IEEE 802.4 is more complex than the IEEE 802.3 protocol.
The bus network topology is not recommended for networks when transferring a large amount of traffic. Taking into account that the bus network topology with coaxial cables was used in the 1990s, and the maximum speed is 10 Mbit/s, you should not use this topology to build your network nowadays.
The ring network topology is a modification of the bus topology. In the ring network topology, each station is connected to two other stations on either side. The two other stations are neighbors of this station. Data travels sequentially in one direction, hence, the network works in half-duplex mode. There are no terminators, and the last station is connected to the first station in the ring. The ring topology is faster than the bus topology. The coaxial cable and connectors used to install a network of the ring topology are the same as those used for the bus network topology.
If you build a large network using the ring topology, use repeaters to prevent data loss when transferring data over the network between stations on long cable fragments. Generally, each station works as a repeater and amplifies the signal. After data is transmitted, the data travels along the ring and passes intermediate nodes until this data is received by the destination device.
You can have higher latency if the number of stations connected to the network is high. For example, if there are 100 computers in the network, and the first computer sends a packet to the 100th computer in the ring, the packet has to pass through 99 stations to reach the target computer. Remember that data is transferred sequentially. All nodes must remain active to transmit data, and for this reason, the ring topology is classified as an active network topology. The risk of packet collisions is reduced because only one node in the network can send packets at a time. This approach allows equal bandwidth for each node in the network.
The token ring network is the implementation of the IEEE 802.5 standard. This topology works by using the token-based system. Token ring is the technology introduced in 1984 by IBM. The token is the marker that travels over the loop in one direction. Only the node that has the token can transmit data.
The first station that starts to work in the network becomes the monitoring station or the active monitor, controls the network state, and removes floating frames from the ring. Otherwise, continuously floating frames circulate in the ring for an unlimited time. The active monitor is also used to avoid lost tokens (by generating a new token) and to clock errors.
The difficulty of the ring topology installation is medium. If you want to add or remove a network device, you need to change only two links. The ring topology is not expensive to install. But the list of advantages ends here.
All nodes in the network of the ring topology share bandwidth. As a result, when adding more nodes into the ring, communication delays and network performance degradation occur. To reconfigure the network or to add/remove nodes, the network must be disconnected and stay offline. Network downtime is not convenient and cost-effective for an organization. Thus the ring network topology is not the best choice to build a scalable and reliable network.
The ring network topology in local area networks was popular in the 1990s until the beginning of the mass usage of the Ethernet standard with twisted-pair cables and more progressive star topology. Nowadays, the ring topology is not used and is not recommended for home and office usage due to the low network speed of 4 or 16 Mbit/s and the other disadvantages mentioned above.
The dual ring is a modified version of the ring topology. Adding a second connection between nodes in a ring allows the transfer of data in both directions and makes the network work in a full-duplex mode. Data is sent in clockwise and counter-clockwise directions in the network. If a link in the first ring fails, the second ring can be used as a link backup to continue network operation until the issue in the first ring is fixed.
The optical ring in modern networks uses the ring network topology. This network topology is primarily used by internet service providers (ISP) and managed service providers (MSP) to create connections in wide area networks.
Professional network equipment, such as switches, that support the appropriate standards are used to create a fiber ring. The price for this hardware is high. The optical ring with high availability is used to connect nodes in different districts of a city or in different cities to the high available and high-speed circle.
The star network topology is easy to scale. If there are no free ports in a switch, change the switch to one with more ports or connect a second switch to the existing switch with a patch cord to expand the network of the star topology. Note that when the network is highly loaded, this connection between switches is a bottleneck because the data transfer rate between stations connected to different switches can be less than the data transfer rate between stations connected to ports of the same switch when. If you need to add a station to the network, take a patch cord, insert one end into the network adapter of the endpoint device and another end into the switch.
Auto-negotiation is a feature used to determine the optimal network speed and data transferring mode (full-duplex or half-duplex) for a port linked to the port of another connected device. Auto-negotiation automatically determines the configuration of a port that is connected to the other end of the cable and sets the data transfer rate based on the lower value. If you connect a 100-Mbit network card to a 1-Gbit switch with a patch cord (Cat 5e), then the speed of the network connection is 100 Mbit/s. The backward compatibility with previous lower-speed Ethernet standards is a useful feature.
The length of a standard Ethernet IEEE 802.3 frame is 1518 bytes, and the standard MTU (maximum transmission unit) is 1500 bytes. If you need stations in the network to exchange large amounts of data, configure them to use jumbo frames that allow frames to use the MTU of 9000 bytes. Jumbo frames can help improve performance when transferring data because the ratio of useful information and service information in the frames is higher. Not all devices support jumbo frames.
The hybrid topology combines two or more of the network topology types covered earlier. A combination of the star and ring types of network topology is an example of a hybrid network topology. Sometimes you might need the flexibility of two topologies in your network. The hybrid topology is usually scalable and has the advantages of all child topologies. The disadvantages of the topologies are also combined, making installation and maintenance difficult. The hybrid topology adds more complexity to your network and may require additional costs.
The advantage of the fiber ring with multiple lines is the absence of a single point of failure. Redundant optical links provide high availability and reliability. In case of one optical link corruption, reserve channels are used. Different fiber lines between nodes of the circle can be traced by using different geographical routes.
Fiber switches/routers that are nodes of the ring are connected to switches/routers that are parts of network segments using the star network topology. That connection has advantages for building local area networks. Fiber media converters are used to connect switches/routers compatible with fiber cables and related connectors to switches/routers compatible with copper cables crimped with the appropriate connectors if a ring and star use different types of cables and network equipment.